A playlist stream extension used by the HLS standard. A URL ending in .m3u8, is also known as a direct playback URL" from the CDN."
Error that occurs when what is requested cannot be found.
Access Control List (ACL), is a list of permissions that can be attached to an object allowing customers to quickly check a client's IP against a list of known net blocks and then make decisions based on the result.
Adaptive Bitrate (ABR)
An adaptive bitrate file (or stream) is created from a single source file (or stream), creating a dynamic playback experience allowing quality to drop if bandwidth is not available to playback the original source file. An ABR stream usually contains multiple renditions.
Adaptive Bitrate Streaming (ABS)
Performance management technique to stream video content to connected devices, adjusting the video quality according to network conditions, video buffer status, CPU usage and available bandwidth to ensure the best quality of experience.
Application Program Interface (API), is the way computers and applications communicate with each other.
An application is a program or a set of programs designed to perform a determined function on different platforms (desktop, tablet, mobile).
An audio codec is the encoded audio format within the streaming protocol. Common audio codecs include: AAC, AAC+, and MP3.
Automated Content Recognition (ACR)
Identification technology that recognizes content played on a device and matches it back to a database for verification.
An option enabling a video or audio file, or live stream to play automatically without action from a user.
Autoplay Video Ad
A video ad that plays automatically by itself or within an active stream.
A series of machines or technology not directly accessed by the user. It's the server side of a client/server system.
Branded Video Content
Video content that is backed by a brand and is non-promotional in nature.
An error that doesn't allow an application to function in the supposed way.
It's a group of binary digits used in computing and telecommunications to measure data that consists of 8 bits.
A storage area used for temporary storage of content or a stream.
It's the specific HTTP header that controls and handles who can cache a response, under which conditions and for how long.
A method of distribution that can be used by publishers from which live or on-demand content is streamed and shared online to reach their final users.
Often refers to the number of audio channels being encoded (Mono - 1 channel / Stereo - 2 channels).
Often refers to a single TS segment of an HTTP delivered stream. Chunks typical range in duration from 1-4 seconds.
Instead of using a local server or a personal computer as storage, a remote server hosted in the internet is utilized to store, manage and process data.
Connected TV (CTV)
A TV that can be connected to the Internet and has access to content online, as well as traditional cable.
Term that can be used to describe a single or multiple video files or live streams.
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
A content delivery network (CDN) is a system of distributed servers that deliver content to a user, based on the geographic locations of the user, the origin of the content and the content delivery server.
A searchable field for single word tags to group content within Media Manager.
A cookie is data sent by an Internet server to a browser that is then stored on the user’s computer. The data saved can store information like authentication keys and preferences.
Video metrics measurements across devices like Mobile, Tablet, Television, Computer.
The Cascading Style Sheet is a code that tells how a webpage has to be displayed for the final user.
An open-source command line tool to transfer data with URL syntax from or to a server using one of many supported protocols.
Data-Driven Linear TV
Usage of data (like demographics, viewing behavious and interests) to make linear tv schedule optimized for a better audience reach.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS), takes the form of a cyber-attack that happens when you try to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming the server with traffic from multiple sources.
A searchable field for a more detailed description of content within Media Manager.
Domain Name System (DNS), is a system for naming computer and network services that translates a domain's numbered IP address into an alphabetic name.
Time (in hours, minutes, and seconds -- HH:MM:SS) of content.
Dynamic Ad Insertion (DAI)
Video ad technology that enables advertisers to insert ads in on-demand video.
Software or Physical Hardware responsible for converting video and audio into a streaming format.
The process of changing the parameters of an on-demand video file (bitrate, resolution, etc).
Edge Side Includes (ESI), is a language based on XML that allows content assembly by HTTP surrogates.
Frames Per Second (FPS)
Refers to the number of frames per second contained within the video portion of a file (or stream). The US television standard is 29.97 fps, with the cinema standard being 24 fps. High Definition and Ultra High Definition file formats may elect to use frame rates at 60 fps or higher.
A framework is a set of programs and defined languages used to develop something.
Front End / Edge
Front end edge of the network, where clients connect to access content.
Gross Rating Point (GRP)
A standard measure in advertising, it is used to calculate the size of an audience reached by specific media, measuring the advertising impact.
A file format used for compressing information to make it faster to transmit. Often used to compress log files for quick delivery.
HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) is one of the first HTTP based streaming protocol (implemented by Apple). Dynamic Adaptive Streaming uses small HTTP-based file segments to deliver a stream, similar to MPEG Dash and HSS.
Information used in addition to the IP address and port number that identifies a unique domain.
Dynamic Adaptive Streaming using small HTTP-based file segments, commonly referred to as Microsoft Smooth Streaming, similar to HLS and MPEG Dash.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a programming language with version 5 being the latest evolution. Both audio and video are integral parts of HTML5, meaning that there's no need for proprietary plug-ins and/or APIs.
HTTPS / SSL
HTTPS / SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the standard security measure used for secure streaming of content via port 443.
A legacy HTTP based audio streaming format with support for MP3 and AAC streaming.
An iFrame (short for inline frame) is an HTML element that allows an external webpage to be embedded in an HTML document. Often used within MainStreaming to embed players on a customer’s website.
In-Stream Video Ad
Normally 15 to 30 seconds long, these ads are used to monetize video content that is being delivered by a publisher and are displayed within streaming video content. The four types of video content where in-stream ads play are UGC (User Generated Content/Video), Syndicated, Sourced and Journalistic videos.
The number of TS segments (chunks) presented within the playlist (.m3u8).
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Leveraging a cloud service to increase a customer's infrastructure and capacity as a managed service. This allows customers to grow infrastructure quickly without purchasing fixed assets with capital expenditures (CAPEX).
Input or entry point (often represented as a URL) into the MainStreaming network.
A measurement of traffic used when customers push content to MainStreaming's entry points of presence (POPs). Applies to both live and on-demand.
A permissioning term used to indicate that a file has followed the account default encoding profile, inherited from the property being used.
A feature of the purging functionality that allows users to actively invalidate content in caches within milliseconds.
Interactive TV (iTV)
Form of media coverage that adds viewer engagement content to television. This can include both interactive content and advertising, and can be delivered in different modes and over multiple formats.
A type of digital video, that users interact with to perform enhanced actions through integrated elements within the video that are more advanced than the standard video playback controls.
Keyframe / B Frame
A key frame (or B frame) is a duration set within a encoder that marks the beginning or end of a transition. Set in seconds, a key frame is a complete image encoded and stored within the data stream. In video compression, only changes that occur from one frame to the next are stored in the data stream. This is done to greatly reduce the amount of information to be stored. Standard Configuration -- keyframe interval to 3-10 seconds. Low Latency Configuration -- keyframe interval to 1 second.
Otherwise known as delay, latency is the time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection once requested.
Live Streaming Video
Digital video content (usually a game, event, program, concert, etc) streamed in real-time across multiple devices such as smartphones, tablets, computers and televisions.
Load balancing refers to efficiently distributing incoming network requests across a group of backend or middle tier servers.
Video content that lasts longer than 8 minutes (i.e., movies and original series).
An element of an HTTP stream, a manifest file contains metadata, a playlist, and encoding renditions for the video file or stream being accessed.
An HTTP Cache-Control functionality that specifies how many seconds an object will remain in the cache before it is removed from storage.
Metadata is simply data (contained within a file or stream) about the content being viewed. For example, a video file may have metadata attributes such as short descriptions and tags.
Generally refers to the processing of content that takes place with an application server that sit between the front end (edge) servers and backend servers (often database servers) on a network.
MKV / .MKV
A royalty-free file extension for video files. Within the video file is an encoded video and audio codec. Often used with source video content in storage and similar to .MP4 and WebM.
MP4 / .MP4
A file extension for video files. Within the video file is an encoded video and audio codec. Often used with source video content in storage.
Dynamic Adaptive Streaming using small HTTP-based file segments, similar in nature to HLS, HSS.
Multi-Channel Network (MCN)
Third-party service providers working with video platforms to distribute content as well as providing technical assistance in exchange for a percentage of the ad revenue earned.
Multi-Channel Video Programming Distributor (MVPD)
A distribution service that delivers live or on-demand video over the internet, normally for a fee.
Mux / Transmux / Re-Packetization
The process of changing a traditional transport stream (typically RTMP or RTSP) to an HTTP delivery format (typically HLS, HSS, and MPEG-DASH).
The location (or address) from which the CDN requests the source content it will serve.
On-the-fly packaging (OTFP) is a VOD media and streaming feature that allows customers to dynamically package video for delivery in multiple HTTP streaming formats.
Outstream Video Ad
Video advertising that takes place outside of In-Stream Video content.
Over The Top (OTT)
Over The Top (OTT) is a term used to refer to content providers that distribute media as a standalone product, directly to viewers over the Internet. OTT providers bypass telecommunications, broadcast, or cable television providers. OTT is often accessed via Smart TV's or devices such as Apple TV, Amazon Fire TV, or Roku.
Over the Top Device
Device or television that can be connected to enable the streaming of internet based content.
A file used to bring files together for playback. In the MainStreaming environment, a playlist can contain multiple video files enabling customers to create a stream containing multiple on-demand (or live) events into one player or playback experience.
Point of Presence (POP), is a collection of servers, routers, network switches and other network equipment housed in a datacenter, Priority, Setting that enables users to specify the order request and cache settings executed within their subroutines.
An HTTP Cache-Control directive that allows users to select which objects are not cached.
A progressive download is the transfer of digital media files from a server to a client, typically using the HTTP protocol when initiated from a computer. The viewer may begin playback of the media before the download is complete. This is different than streaming since the entire content of the video is downloaded from first byte to last, rather than streamed like HLS, HSS, or MPEG Dash.
A term used by MainStreaming to indicate a isolated account. The term is often used when a customer has requirements to keep different divisions of the same parent account, separated.
The process of picking out one or more objects from the cache and discarding it along with its variants.
Often referred to as Social Media Re-Streaming, this is a feature allowing customers to send a transport stream (RTMP) from the middle tier of the MainStreaming network to a Social Media network.
A function that directs requests for information from their originally intended locations to a more desirable destination.
Often referred to as encoding renditions, this is the number of files (or streams if live) created from the original content source.
Height and Width properties for an encoded file. High Resolutions (HD) start at 1280 by 720 pixels and range up to 1920 by 1080 pixels (often referred to as Full HD). Ultra-High Definition (UHD) resolutions range from 1920 by 1080 pixels to 3840 by 2160 pixels (4K UHD), topping out at 4096 by 2160 pixels (DCI 4K).
RESTful / REST
A RESTful API is an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data, also referred to as a RESTful web service. RESTful is based on representational state transfer (REST) technology, an architectural style and approach to communications often used in web services development.
Role-based access control
A method of regulating access to resources based on the roles of the individuals within an organization.
Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a protocol for streaming video, audio and data between a flash player and a server.
A network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers.
An HTTP cache control directive similar to max-age, but applied only to shared caches.
Software as a service (SaaS), is a program that gives users the ability to share files on a shared platform.
Often measured in hertz (Hz), this is the number of times per second audio is measured (sampled) and encoded at. CD's are mastered at 41000 Hz per second.
A customizable duration (indicated in seconds) of TS segments. The larger the segment duration, the more delayed a stream will be front live. Most HLS streams use a 1-4 second segment duration.
Server-side ad insertion (SSAI)
The process of stitching video content and video ads together on the server side level, happening on the backend before it appears to the customer.
A user-defined set of rules and behavior for a website or application. You can the web interface to create, edit, and delete your services.
The header sent by a server in response to an HTTP request and then used to create a cookie on a user's origin.
A searchable field for a short description of content within Media Manager.
Video content that has a duration of less than 8 minutes.
Often referred to within player creation, a skin" is a template for use when creating a player."
Part of the Connected TV family. It's a television with Internet access and interactive features which allows users to stream music and videos.
A type of purging that allows users to easily mark content as outdated. In this way, the content is not deleted from the caches.
A MainStreaming designation for where a customer should push a live stream to. A source often contains a URL, path, stream ID, and key.
MainStreaming status indicator. Options include uploading, queued, encoding, and ready.
Infrastructure that enables audio and video data to be delivered to a device from a remote source. This transfer can be live or on-demand.
Subscription Video On-Demand (SVOD)
A streaming service that gives users access to a catalogue of on-demand content in exchange for a fee.
Custom responses generated within the CDN that users can set if a specific URL is requested or a specific condition, such as a status code, is met. These responses require no origin server interaction.
A thumbnail is reduced-size video or photographic content that are usually used to organize and recognize content at first sight.
Transport Layer Security is a cryptographic protocol that ensures privacy between communicating applications and their users on the internet.
The process of changing the parameters of a live video stream (bitrate, resolution, etc).
Time To Live (TTL), is a setting used to define how long a certain video or audio content will stay in a server / cache.
Also known as authenticated streaming or authenticated video on-demand, TV Everywhere is a business model in which broadcasters grant their audience access to live or on-demand video content by authenticating themselves as current subscribers.
User Generated Content (UGC) is content created by a customer’s user/viewer, typically uploaded by the user/viewer.
Part of a Uniform Resource Locator" (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator (URL), is the address used to find a site or an application's objects on the internet.
Vertical Video Ads
A video created to be seen in portrait mode, with a ratio that is taller than wider. Commonly seen on mobile devices.
Video ad serving template (VAST)
Framework released by the Interactive Advertising Bureau that standardizes the communication requirements between ad servers and video players.
Video Aspect Ratio
The aspect ratio of an image/video is proportional to the relationship between its width and height. There are different ratios in which a video can viewed. The two main ones are widescreen (16:9 for high definition) and standard (4:3 standard definition).
A video codec is the encoded video format within the streaming protocol. Common video codecs include: H.264, H.265, and HEVC.
Video Level Data
Video analytics based on available metadata, used to better target the final audience as well as to help the users look for specific content.
Video multiple ad playlist (VMAP)
VMAP is an IAB standard XML template that used by video content owners and ad networks to program multiple ad insertions from a single tag.
Video On Demand (VOD)
Video content that can be accessed on mutiple devices and platforms and is selected by a viewer after its official release date or original air date and time.
Video player-ad interface definition (VPAID)
An IAB protocol between the ad and the video player that enables ad interactivity and other advanced video advertising functionality, meeting the needs of emerging in-stream formats.
Virtual MVPD (vMVPD)
A digital service that gives access to on-demand and live content delivered over the internet and does not have traditional network infrastructure.
Addressable ad placed within theVOD content and available via a cable provider set top box.
Web Application Firewall (WAF), is the network security system that monitors, filters, or blocks data packets as they travel to and from a web application.
A watermark is an identifying transparent image (or logo), located in a corner quadrant of a video player.
A royalty-free file extension for video files. Within the video file is an encoded video and audio codec. Often used with source video content in storage and similar to .MP4 and .MKV.